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“一带一路”:不是私家小道,而是开放大道 [复制链接]

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发布日期:2015-11-04  来源:中国青年报  

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11月3日上午,参加第二届“读懂中国”国际会议的外宾在充满中国特色的茶歇上交流。本报记者 李隽辉/摄

未来几十年,有没有可能形成一个贯穿亚欧非大陆的开放合作大格局?

几天前刚刚从美国华盛顿出差回来的张燕生一直在思考这个问题。张燕生是国家发改委对外经济研究所所长,他所思考的这个开放合作大格局,是两年前由国家领导人倡议的“一带一路”战略。

“一带一路”战略是丝绸之路经济带和21世纪海上丝绸之路的简称,这是一个听起来颇有些文艺色彩的战略,通过这个战略,多个国家将更加有效地连接在一起。

在第二届“读懂中国”国际会议上,“一带一路”的话题引发了多位外国嘉宾的关注,在他们看来,这是未来开放、发展的一个大战略。

中国想要激发发展

“在巴基斯坦,每个地区都会举起手说,不好意思,我也想让这条路穿过我们的区域。” 巴基斯坦前总理肖卡特·阿齐兹这样形容“一带一路”战略在巴基斯坦受欢迎的程度。

肖卡特·阿齐兹看到的是“一带一路”战略所能产生的巨大经济效应。“这可以提高巴基斯坦的基础设施建设,可以为贸易、旅游打开通道,繁荣经济。”他说。

2013年,中国国家主席习主席提出“一带一路”的战略构想。这是一个覆盖全球一半以上人口的大战略。初步估算,“一带一路”沿线总人口约44亿,经济总量约21万亿美元,分别约占全球的63%和29%。

在第二届“读懂中国”国际会议上,新加坡前外长杨荣文担任其中一场论坛的主持,他认为,“一带一路”是中国计划的一部分。

“这一次,中国想走在西方前面。中国的经济力量强大了,要在中南亚洲激发发展。”杨荣文说,互联互通是“一带一路”的重要内容,国家之间最终不是通过武力,而是通过潜移默化的影响,实现互联互通。这不是中国显示权力的动作,而是一项必须的工作。

杨荣文喜欢回头看历史:“在亚洲地区,从清朝那个时候开始,与大家友好交往、为大家带来财富的老大哥一直是中国。”

这个战略已经开始逐步推进。杨荣文注意到的一个细节是,在巴基斯坦,酒店里的服务员都会说中文。

摊开地图会发现,“一带一路”战略勾连起的不仅仅是中南亚洲国家,而是全世界多个国家之间合作发展的种种可能。

在国外,经常有商人向张燕生提问:“一带一路”为什么没有我所在的地区?

张燕生的回答是:无论哪个国家,只要有合作意愿,都可以成为“一带一路”的一部分。这是一个开放的体系,欢迎世界上所有国家和地区参与和加入。

有紧张的,但更多的是欢迎

“共商、共建、共享”。一个“共”字让“一带一路”战略越来越受欢迎。

俄罗斯前副总理索斯科维茨说,“一带一路”战略关系到中国和相邻国家的合作,这种合作的理念得到很多国家的高度评价。

中国驻法国前大使吴建民更愿意从经济角度理解“一带一路”。在他看来,一带一路解决的是全球需求不足的问题。通过“一带一路”,国与国之间形成互补,共享发展的红利。

真金白银已经拿了出来。中国出资400亿美元设立丝路基金,已经顺利启动;中国倡导成立1000亿美金的亚洲基础设施投资银行,也已经正式筹建。

战略规划正在一步一步向前推进。

在第二届“读懂中国”国际会议上,来自韩国的代表主动提及“一带一路”,他关心的是,中国的国内改革,是不是会与“一带一路”的推进结合起来。他表示,“我们希望这个战略能与韩国更紧密地联系起来”。

韩国代表关心的问题已经有了答案。

中国财政部副部长朱光耀在第二届“读懂中国”国际会议上表示,“一带一路”战略已经写进十三五规划。

“我觉得十三五规划中的对外开放战略就是‘一带一路’。” 中国社会科学院社会经济与政治研究所国际战略研究室主任薛力在接受中国青年报采访时说,在新的五年规划中,一个重要的调整就是周边外交。

在他看来,“一带一路”是新一届中国政府所谋划的对外关系的顶层设计,“对内,我们有长江经济带战略和京津冀协同发展战略;对外,就是‘一带一路’战略”。

“可以说,‘一带一路’战略是中国在‘开放’周边。换句话说,也就是走出去。” 薛力说,“一带一路”非常强调的一点,就是和周边国家的发展战略对接。

这意味着,中国要走出去“开放”周边,需要创造一个稳定的周边环境。周边经济发展了,市场也就扩展了,产能也会增加。

“中国在这过程中强调的一点是,周边国家要有意愿合作。” 薛力说,有些国家有很多忧虑,它们不参加,中国也不着急。有些国家非常欢迎,合作就容易迅速展开。这就不会产生其他国家对中国“开放”的紧张感。没有说“开放”你,只是想带动周边的发展。“这是出于我们的需要,也是我们的责任。”

如果从更长远的时间轴来观察,过去几十年,中国的“走出去”是鼓励企业、个人走出去,而现在,“走出去”是一项国家战略。

细心的人会发现,中国国家领导人开始越来越多地在国外推销中国,高铁、日用消费品、核电站,等等。

不过,这样的战略也让一些国家心有疑虑。在第二届“读懂中国”国际会议上,来自印度的一名代表就表示,虽然印度国内对这个“一带一路”战略很积极,但是想提醒中国朋友,要永远警惕霸权主义。

在全球化背景下,中国的“个子”长高了。“原来我们想韬光养晦,想躲在大树后面,但现在藏不住了。” 薛力说,以前中国做什么别人都不关心,但现在别人都拿着放大镜在看。中国需要调整对外战略,直接告诉别人我们想干什么。

战略落实还需细化

在很多人看来,“一带一路”是一个蕴含着无限潜能的大市场。

俄罗斯前副总理索斯科维茨告诉中国青年报记者,中俄两国在贸易的合作力度上还需要加深,尤其是中国的西南和南方地区与俄罗斯合作比较少。“成都今年才开通和俄罗斯的直航,两国企业才刚有互换名片的机会。”

“‘一带一路’写入十三五规划,是第一次把中国的经济规划与全球战略紧密相联。”中国财政部副部长朱光耀说,“一带一路”是连接十三五规划与世界的桥梁,这个战略有对世界的考量和对中国国情的综合判断。

对世界来说,这是在释放一个重要的信号:中国的国内经济规划已经与全球发展关联上。

就在最近,中国国家主席习主席访问英国时,英国主动提出将英格兰北部振兴计划与“一带一路”战略对接。而英国并非古丝绸之路国家,也不是“一带一路”沿线国家。

在朱光耀看来,在经济全球化的今天,世界各国迫切需要彼此合作。

张燕生经常被问及“一带一路”,比如这是绿色之路、包容之路吗?这会不会变成中国的包袱?张燕生的回答则是:既有机遇,也有风险。

薛力更加关注“一带一路”战略的实施。在他看来,强调“一带一路”战略重要性的阶段已经过去,现在的关键是怎么解决、落实“一带一路”战略实施过程中的一些具体问题。

薛力告诉记者,中国周边有14个国家和地区,一带一路上有64个国家,需要确定重点国家和重点领域。这个“确定”的前提是得有人做大量的调研,让沿线国家告诉我们希望做什么,我们自己做一个审核机制,然后再做起来。

“这方面我们还有所欠缺。” 薛力说,需要对落实“一带一路”战略进行梳理,哪些问题应该先做,哪些问题应该后做。

“这是一个开放的战略,不是谁的私家小道,而是大家共享的大道。”朱光耀说。




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